Journal of the Audio Engineering Society

2002 March - Volume 50 Number 3


A procedure is proposed for estimating the loss in amplitude response of a loudspeaker when the acoustic output of its vent is delayed with respect to that of the cone.

It is demonstrated how self-organizing dynamic systems can be used to generate suitable source streams for synthesizing extralinguistic utterances in the context of a source-filter voice synthesizer. Conventionally the source stream is simulated using two types of generators: one generator of white noise and one (or more) generator(s) of periodic pulses. Then, by carefully controlling the amount of signal that each generator sends to the filters, one can roughly emulate the behavior of the vocal folds, whether or not they are tensioned. A number of variations have been proposed in order to furnish the source stream with more realism, but to our knowledge none of these has addressed the needs of extralinguistic utterances. We propose that source streams suitable for synthesizing extralinguistic utterances can be produced using granular synthesis techniques coupled with self-organizing dynamic systems. An example is presented which uses a cellular automaton-controlled granular synthesizer.

Reproducing Low-Pitched Signals through Small Loudspeakers

Authors: Larsen, Erik; Aarts, Ronald M.

Ever since the invention of the electrodynamic loudspeaker there has been a need for greater acoustical output, especially at low frequencies. From a manufacturer's point of view it has been desirable for a long time to reduce the size of the loudspeaker (and cabinet). These two demands are physically contradictory. Options are being offered to evoke the illusion of a higher low-frequency response of the loudspeaker while the power radiated by the loudspeaker at those low frequencies remains the same, or is even lower. This is feasible by exploiting certain psychoacoustic phenomena. The required nonlinear signal processing is studied for a number of specific implementations. An elaborate analysis of the outcome of a listening test, aimed at assessing the subjective evaluation of the system presented, employing multidimensional scaling and biplots, is also presented.

In 1997, Jon Dattorro published articles entitled "Effect Design" that were to appear in the Journal in three parts. Parts 1 and 2 were published in the September and October issues. Part 3 is now being published, unedited. The paper is a tutorial intended to serve as a reference in the field of digital audio effects in the electronic music industry for those who are new to this specialization of digital signal processing. The effects presented are those that are demanded most often, hence they will serve as a good toolbox. The algorithms chosen are of such a fundamental nature that they will find application ubiquitously and often.

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Estimating the Loudspeaker Response when the Vent Output is Delayed

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